January 17, 2016 lyukum

Sauerkraut / Kvashena Kapusta / Suan Cai, etc.

Sour Fermented Cabbage

Хороша закуска квашена капустка!
И подать не стыдно, и сожрут – не жалко!

Sour cabbage is the best health salvage!
No shame to dish up one, no pity when all gone!

Sour Cabbage

The English name for fermented cabbage is borrowed from German where it means literally “sour herb” or “sour cabbage”. It is believed that the earliest records of people eating fermented cabbage come from ancient China, where it is known as Suan Cai (or Suan Tsai). Many sources claim Suan Cai was consumed by those who built the Great Wall 2,000 years ago. About 1,000 years later, fermented cabbage was brought to Europe and became a staple food in Eastern-European an German cuisines. In every language the name means the same — sour cabbage.

Cabbage Varieties

There are many sources in English with step-by-step instructions for making fermented cabbage at home. Almost all of them don’t pay attention to cabbage varieties as if knowing how to choose the right cabbage for fermenting is a common knowledge. Apparently, it is not. In addition, in Southern states we mostly have only green salad cabbage available. Even though it is white under outer green leaves, green cabbage is less juicy and sweet. It becomes grayish and looks less appetizing when fermented. The only cabbage to ferment is white, large, firm, and slightly flat winter cabbage. In Austin, look for it in MT Supermarket and other Asian produce stores. It is more expensive, but worse every penny.

When To Say No to Massage

There are 4 easy steps to make fermented cabbage: 1) shred, 2) mix with salt, 3) pack into a jar, 4) wait for 3 days (72F room temperature). Many sources describe the second step as something that requires manual efforts. Is that true?

The main goal of this step is to distribute salt equally in shredded cabbage and draw water out of it. Salty cabbage juices are the brine in which the cabbage can ferment without spoiling. Just like for cole slaw, finely shredded juicy cabbage needs neither “working the salt into it,” nor “massaging” and “squeezing” when prepped for fermentation. Love — which is gentle tossing — is all it needs. That’s what keeps it pleasantly crunchy when ready to eat.

5 Ingredients for Success

  1. Keep everything clean — your hands, kitchen counter, cutting board, knife or mandoline, jar, and weight. Cleanliness is indeed next to Godliness when fermenting foods.
  2. Use a jar made of non-reactive materials. Glass is number one choice; stainless steel is the second; glazed ceramic — the third. In case of SS jar, the weight should be made of nonconductive material.
  3. Choose white firm juicy cabbage.
  4. Have sufficient level of brine. Use weight to keep cabbage under it all the time.
  5. At the end of the second day of fermentation, help by-product gases escape from the bottom layers of cabbage by making 4-5 deep holes with a chopstick.

Other Ingredients

Sweeteners. Here in Texas, I feel very lucky when I get a cabbage with enough natural sugars in it. Most of the time I add some brown sugar, agave syrup, or honey.

Carrots. Carrots used to be an additional source of sugars too, but nowadays sugary carrots are as rare as good cabbage. They still improve the color of final product by adding warm hades of orange. Don’t skip them.

Spices. Here you can play with flavors of European cuisines. Germans add caraway seeds and juniper berries. Slavic cuisines often use black pepper, cloves, and bay leaf. It is also common to add cranberries and apples to the mix. Some recipes suggest sprinkling spices all over cabbage, but I insist on packing them into a tea bags and placing between layers of cabbage. I don’t like removing spices from my meal during eating.

Ratios

  • Salt: ~ 2% of shredded cabbage weight, e.g., 20g salt / 1000g cabbage
  • Sugar: ~ 2-3 tsp / 1000g cabbage
  • Carrots: ~ 1 tbsp / 1000g cabbage
  • Spices: ~ 5 peppercorns + 2 clove + 3 allspice + 1 bay leaf / 500g cabbage

My Favorite Tools

I half or quarter cabbage first and then use mandoline as the most efficient tool. Stainless steel canister is my preferred jar for fermenting cabbage. On the top of the cabbage, I place a small plate upside down and a glass jar filled with water as a weight.

Sauerkraut / Kvashena Kapusta / Suan Cai, etc.
Sour Fermented Cabbage
Print Recipe
Prep Time 20minutes
Passive Time 3days
Servings lb
Sour Fermented Cabbage
Print Recipe
Prep Time 20minutes
Passive Time 3days
Servings lb
Ingredients
Units:
Ingredients
Units:
Instructions
  1. Divide spices and place them in two tea bags.
  2. Remove any imperfect outer leaves and finely shred cabbage heads around their cores. Cabbage cores won't be used. Shred carrots.
  3. Place a large bowl on kitchen scales, zero it, and add 11 oz of shredded cabbage, 0.2 oz of salt, 1 tsp agave syrup, a third of carrots. Mix and toss for about 30 seconds. Transfer into a jar. Place one tea bag with spices on top.
  4. Repeat with the second third of the cabbage. Press down the cabbage in the jar with your fist. Place the second tea bag with spices on top.
  5. Repeat with the last third of the cabbage. Press down the cabbage in the jar with your fist. Place the weight on top. Ferment for three days in room temperature (72F). At the end of the second day of fermentation, help by-product gases escape from the bottom layers of cabbage by making 4-5 deep holes with a chopstick.
  6. Keep refrigerated in covered containers for up to 1 month. (The fermentation process slows down in lower temperatures, but it continues.) To serve as a salad, mix sour cabbage with thinly sliced onions and dress with high quality vegetable oil.
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